SAP ABAP Keywords

Complete List of all SAP ABAP Keywords.

Alphabetical Overview of all SAP ABAP Commands or Keywords.

A
ADD for single fields
Adds two single fields.
Syntax
ADD TO .
The contents of are added to the contents of and the results are stored in . This is equivalent to: = + .
More…
ADD for field sequences
Adds sequences of fields in storage.
Syntax
ADD THEN UNTIL GIVING .
ADD THEN UNTIL ACCORDING TO GIVING .
ADD THEN UNTIL TO .
ADD FROM TO GIVING .
If , ,…, is a sequence of fields with the same distance to one another and if they have the same type and length, these fields are added and the result is stored in . Different variants allow you to limit fields to a subsequence, to include in the sum, and to perform the operation on a sequence of fields that directly follow one another.

ADD-CORRESPONDING
Adds subfields of structures.
Syntax
ADD-CORRESPONDING TO .
All the subfields of the structures and having the same name are added and the results are stored in .

ALIASES
Defines class-specific alias names for an interface component in ABAP objects.
Syntax
ALIASES FOR .
is defined within a class or interface as synonymous with the interface component .

APPEND
Appends a line or multiple lines to the end of an index table.
Syntax
APPEND |LINES OF TO
[ASSIGNING | REFERENCE INTO ].
A line or multiple lines of an internal table are appended to index table . If you use ASSIGNING or INTO REFERENCE, field symbol refers to the appended line or the relevant data reference is stored in after the statement.

ASSIGN
Assigns a field to a field symbol.
Syntax
ASSIGN [INCREMENT ] TO
[CASTING [TYPE |LIKE ] [DECIMALS ]] [RANGE ].
Data object is assigned to field symbol . now points to the data object. After the addition INCREMENT , the storage area that is offset times by a length of starting with is assigned to the field symbol. Pointed brackets are part of the syntax for field symbol names. The CASTING addition permits you to cast data objects when assigning field symbols. The RANGE addition defines the storage area in which either offset/length accesses or the INCREMENT addition are allowed. In Unicode programs, standard access is only allowed within the field limits of , but this can be extended with RANGE. In non-Unicode programs, standard access is possible up to the boundary of the data segment and can be limited with RANGE.

Syntax
ASSIGN ->* TO [CASTING ... ].
Dereferencing of the data reference in . The data object to which the data reference refers is assigned to field symbol .

AT for event blocks
Event keywords for defining event blocks for screen events.
Syntax
AT SELECTION-SCREEN…
AT LINE-SELECTION.
AT USER-COMMAND.
AT PFn.
User actions on a selection screen or on a list trigger certain events in the ABAP runtime environment. The event keywords define event blocks that are called when events occur.

AT for group change
Change of group when processing loops of extracts and internal tables.
Syntax
AT NEW .
AT END OF .
AT FIRST.
AT LAST.
AT .
The statements are used to process group levels within a loop using an extract dataset or an internal table. They introduce statement blocks that must be closed with ENDAT. The statements between AT and ENDAT are only executed if the corresponding group change occurred.

AUTHORITY-CHECK
Checks user authorization.
Syntax
AUTHORITY-CHECK OBJECT ID FIELD
ID FIELD

ID FIELD .
There is a check if the program user has all the authorizations defined in authorization object . ,…, are the authorization fields of the authorization object. ,… , …, are data objects of the program. The value of the data objects is checked against the authorization fields.

B
BACK
Relative position of the output in a list.
Syntax
BACK.
Positions the list output either in the first column of the first line following the page header of the current page or in connection with RESERVE in the first column of the first line of a line block.

BREAK-POINT
Calls the Debugger.
Syntax
BREAK-POINT.
Interrupts execution of the program and goes to debugging mode. Is used as a test help. Normal program processing is interrupted when this statement is reached and the system goes to a debugger.

C
CALL CUSTOMER-FUNCTION
Calls the customer function modules.
Syntax
CALL CUSTOMER-FUNCTION …
Similar to CALL FUNCTION. The function modules must be programmed and activated within the customer’s modification concept.

CALL FUNCTION
Calls the function modules.
Syntax
CALL FUNCTION [EXPORTING ... fi = a i... ]
[IMPORTING ... fi = a i... ]
[CHANGING ... fi = a i... ]
[TABLES ... fi = a i... ]
[EXCEPTIONS... ei = r i... ]
[DESTINATION ]
[IN UPDATE TASK]
[STARTING NEW TASK]
[IN BACKGOUND TASK].
The program calls either a function module in the same R/3 System, or one from an external system, depending on the variant of the statement you use. You can call update modules when processing transactions. You can also call functions asynchronously. The other additions are used to specify actual parameters for the parameter interface for the function module, , and to handle exceptions.

CALL DIALOG
Calls a dialog module.
Syntax
CALL DIALOG [AND SKIP FIRST SCREEN]
[EXPORTING... fi = a i... ]
[IMPORTING... fi = a i... ]
[USING itab].
Calls the dialog module . A dialog module is an ABAP program with a sequence of screens. It does not have to be started using a transaction code, or run in the same SAP LUW, like the calling program. The additions are used to skip the initial screen in the sequence and specify actual parameters for the parameter interface of the dialog module.

CALL METHOD
Calls a method in ABAP Objects.
Syntax
CALL METHOD [EXPORTING ... =.... ]
[IMPORTING ... =.... ]
[CHANGING ... =.... ]
[RECEIVING r = h ]
[EXCEPTIONS... = r i... ]
[PARAMETER-TABLE ]
[EXCEPTION-TABLE ].
[CALL METHOD]( … ).
Calls a method . The additions are used to specify actual parameters for the parameter interface for the function module and to handle exceptions. The last two additions pass parameters dynamically in a dynamic method call. Alternatively, if the method is called statically, the parameters can be specified using parenthesis notation (as you can when specifying parameters in a CALL METHOD statement). You can also use functional methods with this syntax in operand positions.

CALL METHOD OF
Calls a method in OLE2 Automation.
Syntax
CALL METHOD OF .
Calls the method, , of the OLE2 Automation Object, .

CALL SCREEN
Calls a screen sequence.
Syntax
CALL SCREEN
[STARTING AT ]
[ENDING AT ].
Calls the sequence of screens that begins with the screen . All the screens in the screen sequence belong to the current ABAP program. The screen sequence ends when the program reaches the screen numbered 0. The additions let you call a single screen in a new window.
CALL SELECTION-SCREEN
Calls a selection screen.
Syntax
CALL SELECTION-SCREEN
[STARTING AT ]
[ENDING AT ].
Calls a selection screen defined in an ABAP program. The selection screen is processed in the program in the AT SELECTION-SCREEN event. The additions let you call a selection screen in a new window.
CALL TRANSACTION
Call a transaction.
Syntax
CALL TRANSACTION
[AND SKIP FIRST SCREEN]
[USING ].
Calls the transaction after having received data from the calling program. At the end of the transaction that has been called, the system returns to the statement following the call in the calling report. The additions are used to skip the initial screen in the sequence or to pass a batch input table to the transaction.

CASE
Conditional branch.
Syntax
CASE .
Opens a CASE control structure that ends with an ENDCASE statement. The CASE control structure allows you to control which statement blocks (introduced by WHEN) are processed, based on the contents of a data object.

CATCH
Catches a class-based exception.
CATCH … [INTO ].
You can only use this statement in a TRY-ENDTRY block, where you define a handler for one or more class-based exceptions. You can use INTO to place a reference to the exception object into the reference variable .

CATCH SYSTEM-EXCEPTIONS
Catches a catchable runtime error.
Syntax
CATCH SYSTEM-EXCEPTIONS = … = .
Introduces a CATCH area, which ends with an ENDCATCH statement. If a catchable runtime error , occurs between CATCH and ENDCATCH, the current processing block is interrupted. The system jumps to the appropriate ENDCATCH statement and fills SY-SUBRC with .

CHECK
Conditionally leaves a loop or processing block.
Syntax
CHECK .
If the logical expression is true, the system continues with the next statement. If it is false, processing within the loop is interrupted at the current loop pass, and the next loop pass is performed. Otherwise the system leaves the current processing block. In conjunction with selection tables, and inside GET events, you can use an extra variant of the CHECK statement.

CLASS Declaration
Declares a class in ABAP Objects.
Syntax
CLASS DEFINITION [PUBLIC]
[INHERITING FROM ]
[ABSTRACT]
[FINAL]
[CREATE PUBLIC|PROTECTED|PRIVATE]
[FRIENDS ...]
[DEFERRED]
[LOAD].
Introduces the declaration part of a class, . The declaration part ends with ENDCLASS and contains the declaration of all the components of the class. The PUBLIC addition is generated only by the Class Builder. It defines a global class in the Class Library. The INHERITING FROM addition lets you derive the class, , from a superclass, . The ABSTRACT addition defines an abstract class, which cannot be instantiated. The FINAL addition defines a class that cannot have any subclasses. The CREATE addition specifies who can instantiate the class. FRIENDS allows you to specify other classes or interfaces, that can access the private components of the class and instantiate objects of the class, independently of the CREATE addition. The DEFERRED addition makes the class known to the program before it is declared. The LOAD addition loads a class explicitly from the Class Library.

CLASS – Implementation
Implements a class in ABAP Objects.
Syntax
CLASS IMPLEMENTATION.
Introduces the implementation part of a class, . The implementation part ends with ENDCLASS and contains the implementation of all the components of the class.

CLASS-DATA
Declares static attributes of a class or interface.
Syntax
CLASS-DATA …
Like DATA. However, the attribute is declared as a static attribute. Static attributes are not instance-specific. Their content is shared by all instances.

CLASS-METHODS
Declares static methods of a class or interface.
Syntax
CLASS-METHODS …
Like METHODS, except that the method is declared as a static method. A static method can access static attributes and can only trigger static events.

CLASS-EVENTS
Declares static events of a class or interface.
Syntax
CLASS-EVENTS …
Like EVENTS, except that the event is declared as a static attribute. Static events are the only type of event that can be triggered in a static method.

CLEANUP
Tidies up after class-based exceptions.
CLEANUP.
Can only be used within a TRY-ENDTRY block, where it defines a control block. If a class-based exception is not caught with a CATCH statement, the system executes the statements between CLEANUP and ENDTRY, before passing the exception along the call hierarchy.

CLEAR
Sets a variable to its initial value.
Syntax
CLEAR .
The variable , which can have any data type, is set to an initial value appropriate to its type.

CLOSE DATASET
Closes a file.
Syntax
CLOSE DATASET .
Closes a file opened with OPEN DATASET on the application server.

CLOSE CURSOR
Closes a database cursor.
Syntax
CLOSE CURSOR .
Closes a cursor opened with OPEN CURSOR.

COLLECT
Aggregates lines and then adds them to an internal table.
Syntax
COLLECT INTO
[ASSIGNING | REFERENCE INTO ].
The system checks whether there is already a table entry that matches the key. If there is no corresponding entry already in the table, the COLLECT statement has the same effect as INSERT. If an entry with the same key already exists, the COLLECT statement does not append a new line, but adds the contents of the numeric fields in the work area to the contents of the fields in the existing entry. If you use ASSIGNING or INTO REFERENCE, field symbol refers to the inserted line or the relevant data reference is stored in after the statement.

COMMIT
Closes a SAP LUW.
Syntax
COMMIT WORK [AND WAIT]
Writes all the database changes and releases all the database locks. Triggers updating. The AND WAIT addition forces the program to wait until the system has finished updating the database. Otherwise, updating is asynchronous.

COMMUNICATION
Enables two programs to communicate with each other.
Syntax
COMMUNICATION INIT DESTINATION ID [additions].
COMMUNICATION ALLOCATE ID [additions].
COMMUNICATION ACCEPT ID [additions].
COMMUNICATION SEND ID BUFFER [additions].
COMMUNICATION RECEIVE ID [additions].
COMMUNICATION DEALLOCATE ID [additions].
The statement initializes, creates, and accepts communication between two programs; lets these two programs send and receive data; and then closes the connection.

COMPUTE
Performs numeric operations.
Syntax
COMPUTE = .
The result of the mathematical operation specified in is assigned to the field . The keyword COMPUTE is optional.

CONDENSE
Removes spaces from a string
Syntax
CONDENSE [NO-GAPS].
This statement removes any leading blanks from the field and replaces other sequences of blanks by exactly one blank. If the addition NO-GAPS is specified, all blanks are removed.

CONSTANTS
Declares constant data objects.
Syntax
CONSTANTS … VALUE [ | IS INITIAL]…
The syntax is similar to DATA, except that the VALUE addition is required, and that internal tables and deep structures cannot be declared as constants The start value specified in the VALUE addition cannot be changed during the execution of the program.

CONTINUE
Ends a loop pass.
Syntax
CONTINUE.
Only possible within loops. This statement terminates the current loop pass and starts the next

CONTEXTS
Declares a context.
Syntax
CONTEXTS .
Generates an implicit data type CONTEXT_, which you can use to create context instances

CONTROLS
Defines a control.
Syntax
CONTROLS TYPE .
Defines an ABAP runtime object . This displays data in a particular format on a screen, depending on the type Currently, may be a table control or tabstrip control

CONVERT für Dates
Converts a data into an inverted date form.
Syntax
CONVERT DATE INTO INVERTED-DATE .
CONVERT INVERTED-DATE INTO DATE .
If and are date fields in the internal form YYYYMMDD, the nines complement of is placed in field and vice versa. In inverted date format, the most recent date has the smaller numerical value

CONVERT for Timestamps
Converts a timestamp into the correct date and time for the current time zone
Syntax
CONVERT TIME STAMP TIME ZONE INTO DATE TIME .
CONVERT DATE TIME INTO TIME STAMP TIME ZONE .
As long as has type P(8) or P(11) with 7 decimal placed, and has type C(6), the time stamp will be converted to the correct date and time for the time zone .

CONVERT for Text
Converts a text into a format that can be sorted alphabetically.
Syntax
CONVERT TEXT INTO SORTABLE CODE .
must have type C and must have type X. The string is then converted so that the relative order of the characters allows them to be sorted alphabetically in the current text environment

CREATE DATA
Creates a dynamic data object.
Syntax
CREATE DATA TYPE |LIKE .
CREATE DATA TYPE LINE OF |LIKE LINE OF .
CREATE DATA TYPE REF TO DATA|.
CREATE DATA TYPE TYPE|LIKE OF WITH .
If is a data reference variable, a data object of the specified type is created. The reference in points to this object. You can omit the TYPE declaration in fully-typed reference variables.

CREATE OBJECT in ABAP Objects
Instantiates an object in ABAP Objects.
Syntax
CREATE OBJECT [TYPE ] [EXPORTING ... =.... ].
must be a reference variable, defined with reference to a class. CREATE OBJECT then creates an object of that class, to which the reference in then points The reference in points to this object. If is a typed class reference variable with reference to a subclass of , or if is an interface reference variable, whose interface is implemented in the class , you can specify the class of the instantiated object explicitly in a TYPE addition, to establish the dynamic type of the reference variables. The EXPORTING addition specifies the non-optional IMPORTING parameters of the instance constructor of the class of the instantiated object.

CREATE OBJECT in OLE2 Automation
Instantiates an external object in OLE2 Automation.
Syntax
CREATE OBJECT .
If is a class assigned to an automation server, an initial object of this class is created

D
DATA with Reference to Known Data Types
Declares variables with a previously-declared data type
Syntax
DATA … [TYPE |LIKE ]… [VALUE ].
Declares a variable with the fully-defined data type or the same data type as another data object . The data type can be D, F, I, T, a type defined locally in the program using the TYPES statement, or a type from the ABAP Dictionary. The data object is a data object or line of an internal table that has already been defined. The VALUE addition specifies a starting value.

DATA with Reference to Generic Data Types
Declares variables by completing the description of a generic type
Syntax
DATA [()] TYPE [DECIMALS ]… [VALUE ].
DATA TYPE .
The data type can be C, N, P, X, STRING or XSTRING. The option sets the field length. If you omit it, the field length is set to the appropriate initial value. If is P, you can specify the number of decimal places using the DECIMALS addition. If you omit this, the number of decimal places is set to 0. If you do not use the TYPE addition, the system uses the default predefined generic type C.
Syntax
DATA TYPE .
The data type is a standard internal table with generic key. The default key is automatically used in the DATA statement.

DATA, Creating an Associated Data Type
Declares variables with data types that only exist as an attribute of the variable.
Syntax
DATA TYPE REF TO |.
The variable is defined as an object reference variable for the class or interface .
Syntax
DATA TYPE REF TO DATA|.
Declares the variable as a data reference variable for a data object.
Syntax
DATA: BEGIN OF ,

…,

END OF .
Combines the variables to form the structure . The individual variables within a structure are addressed in the program with a hyphen between the structure name and component name as follows: -.
Syntax
DATA TYPE|LIKE OF WITH .
The variable is declared as an internal table with the table kind , line type , and key .
Syntax
DATA TYPE|LIKE RANGE OF |.
Declares the variable as a RANGES table. A RANGES table has the same data type as a selection table, but is not linked to input fields on a selection screen.

DATA statement for Shared Data Areas
Declares shared data areas in a program.
Syntax
DATA: BEGIN OF COMMON PART ,
. ..
END OF COMMON PART.
The variables are assigned to a data area , which can be defined in more than one program. These data areas use the same memory addresses for all programs that are loaded into the same internal session.

DEFINE
Defines a macro.
Syntax
DEFINE .
Introduces the definition of the macro . Each macro must consist of complete ABAP statement and be concluded with the END-OF-DEFINITION statement.

DELETE for Files
Deletes files on the application server
Syntax
DELETE DATASET .
Deletes the file from the file system of the application server.

DELETE for Database Table Entries
Deletes entries from database tables.
Syntax
DELETE FROM WHERE .
All of the lines in the database table that satisfy the conditions in the WHERE clause are deleted.
Syntax
DELETE FROM .
DELETE FROM TABLE .
This deletes the line that has the same primary key as the work area , or deletes all the lines in the database that have the same primary key as a line in the internal table . The work area or the lines of the internal table must have at least the same length as the work area of the database table.

DELETE for Cluster Databases
Deletes data clusters from cluster database tables.
Syntax
DELETE FROM DATABASE () ID .
Deletes the entire cluster in area with the name from the cluster database table .

DELETE for the Cross-Transaction Application Buffer
Deletes data clusters from the cross-transaction application buffer.
Syntax
DELETE FROM SHARED BUFFER () ID .
Deletes the data cluster for the area with the name stored in the cross-transaction application buffer for the table .

DELETE for Lines from an Internal Table
Deletes lines from internal tables of any type.
Syntax
DELETE TABLE FROM .
DELETE TABLE WITH TABLE KEY = … = .
Deletes using the table key. All lines with the same key are deleted. The key values are taken either from a compatible work area or specified explicitly.
Syntax
DELETE WHERE .
Deletes using conditions. Deletes all table entries that satisfy the logical expression . The logical condition can consist of more than one comparison. In each comparison, the first operand must be a component of the line structure.
Syntax
DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATE ENTRIES FROM [COMPARING... ].
Deletes adjacent duplicate entries, either by comparing the key fields or the comparison fields specified explicitly in the COMPARING addition.

DELETE for Lines from Index Tables
Deletes entries from index tables.
Syntax
DELETE [INDEX ].
If you use the INDEX addition, the line with index is deleted from the table . Without the INDEX addition, you can only use the above statement within a LOOP. In this case, you delete the current line.
Syntax
DELETE [FROM ] [TO ] [WHERE ].
The system deletes all of the lines of whose index lies between and and who meet the conditions specified in the WHERE clause. If you do not specify a FROM addition, the system deletes lines from the first line onwards. If you do not specify a TO addition, the system deletes lines up to the last line. The logical condition can consist of more than one comparison. In each comparison, the first operand must be a component of the line structure.

DEMAND
Retrieves values from a context instance.
Syntax
DEMAND = … = FROM CONTEXT
[MESSAGES INTO ].
Fills the fields with the values from the context instance . You can handle these messages in your programs by using the MESSAGES addition.

DESCRIBE DISTANCE
Gets the distance between two fields.
Syntax
DESCRIBE DISTANCE BETWEEN AND INTO [IN BYTE|CHARACTER MODE].
Writes the number of bytes between data objects and into the variable . The length of the first field in memory is always included. In Unicode programs, you must specify either the IN BYTE MODE or IN CHARACTER MODE addition. In non-Unicode programs, the distance is returned in bytes.

DESCRIBE FIELD
Describes the attributes of a field.
Syntax
DESCRIBE FIELD [LENGTH [IN BYTE|CHARACTER MODE]]
[TYPE [COMPONENTS ]]
[OUTPUT-LENGTH ] [DECIMALS ]
[EDIT MASK ] [HELP-ID ].
The attributes of the data object specified by the parameters of the statement are written to the variables following the parameters. You can use any number of the additions in the same statement. In Unicode programs, you must specify either the IN BYTE MODE or IN CHARACTER MODE addition for LENGTH. In non-Unicode programs, the length is returned in bytes.

DESCRIBE LIST
Describes the attributes of a list.
Syntax
DESCRIBE LIST NUMBER OF LINES [INDEX ].
DESCRIBE LIST NUMBER OF PAGES [INDEX ].
DESCRIBE LIST LINE PAGE [INDEX ].
DESCRIBE LIST PAGE [INDEX ]…
Depending on the variant of the statement that you use, writes the number of lines, number of pages, a line of a list on a given page, or various attributes of a page to variables.

DESCRIBE TABLE
Describes the attributes of an internal table.
Syntax
DESCRIBE TABLE [LINES ] [OCCURS] [KIND ].
Depending on the additions you use, writes the number of lines occupied, the value specified for the INITIAL SIZE of the table, or the table type into a corresponding variable.

DIVIDE
Divides one field by another.
Syntax
DIVIDE BY .
Divides the content of by , and places the result in . This is equivalent to: n=n/m.

DIVIDE-CORRESPONDING
Divides matching components of structures.
Syntax
DIVIDE-CORRESPONDING BY .
All the identically-named subfields of the structures and are divided and the results are stored these subfields of .

DO
Introduces a loop.
Syntax
DO [ TIMES] [VARYING FROM NEXT ].
Introduces a statement block that ends with ENDDO. If you omit the TIMES addition, the statement block is repeated until it reaches a termination statement such as EXIT or CHECK. Use the TIMES addition to restrict the number of loop passes to . The VARYING addition allows you to process fields the same distance apart in memory.

E
EDITOR-CALL
Loads an ABAP program or internal table into a text editor.
Syntax
EDITOR-CALL FOR …
EDITOR-CALL FOR REPORT …
Loads the internal table or the program into a text editor, where you can edit it using standard editor functions.

ELSE
Introduces a statement block in an IF control structure.
Syntax
ELSE.
If the logical expression in an IF statement is false, ELSE introduces the statement block to be executed instead.

ELSEIF
Introduces a statement block in an IF control structure.
Syntax
ELSEIF .
If the logical expression in an IF statement is false and is true, ELSE introduces the statement block to be executed instead.

END-OF-DEFINITION
Closes a macro definition.
Syntax
END-OF-DEFINITION.
This statement concludes a macro definition introduced with DEFINITION.

END-OF-PAGE
Event keywords for defining event blocks for list events.
Syntax
END-OF-PAGE.
Whenever the page footer is reached while a list is being created, the runtime environment triggers the END-OF-PAGE event, and the corresponding event block is executed.

END-OF-SELECTION
Event keywords for defining event blocks for reporting events.
Syntax
END-OF-SELECTION.
Once a logical database has read all of the required lines and passed them to the executable program, the runtime environment triggers the END-OF-SELECTION event, and the corresponding event block is executed.

ENDAT
Closes a statement block in control level processing.
Syntax
ENDAT.
This statement concludes a control level processing block introduced with AT.

ENDCASE
Closes a CASE control structure.
Syntax
ENDCASE.
This statement concludes a control structure introduced with CASE.

ENDCATCH
Closes a CATCH area.
Syntax
ENDCATCH.
This statement concludes an exception handling block introduced with CATCH SYSTEM-EXCEPTIONS.

ENDCLASS
Closes a class definition.
Syntax
ENDCLASS.
This statement concludes a class declaration or implementation introduced with CLASS.

ENDDO
Closes a DO loop.
Syntax
ENDDO.
This statement concludes a loop introduced with DO.

ENDEXEC
Closes a Native SQL statement.
Syntax
ENDEXEC.
This statement ends a Native SQL statement introduced with EXEC SQL.

ENDFORM
Closes a subroutine.
Syntax
ENDFORM.
This statement concludes a subroutine definition introduced with FORM.

ENDFUNCTION
Closes a function module.
Syntax
ENDFUNCTION.
This statement concludes a function module introduced with FUNCTION.

ENDIF
Closes an IF control structure.
Syntax
ENDIF.
This statement concludes a control structure introduced with IF.

ENDINTERFACE
Closes a interface definition.
Syntax
ENDINTERFACE.
This statement concludes an interface definition introduced with INTERFACE.

ENDLOOP
Closes a LOOP.
Syntax
ENDLOOP.
This statement concludes a loop introduced with LOOP.

ENDMETHOD
Closes a method.
Syntax
ENDMETHOD.
This statement concludes a method implementation introduced with METHOD.

ENDMODULE
Closes a dialog module.
Syntax
ENDMODULE.
This statement concludes a dialog module introduced with MODULE.

ENDON
Closes a conditional statement block.
Syntax
ENDON.
This statement ends a conditional statement block introduced with ON CHANGE.

ENDPROVIDE
Closes a PROVIDE loop.
Syntax
ENDPROVIDE.
This statement concludes a loop introduced with PROVIDE.

ENDSELECT
Closes a SELECT loop.
Syntax
ENDSELECT.
This statement concludes a loop introduced with SELECT.

ENDTRY
Closes a TRY area.
Syntax
ENDTRY.
This statement concludes a control structure introduced with TRY.

ENDWHILE
Closes a WHILE loop.
Syntax
ENDWHILE.
This statement concludes a loop introduced with WHILE.

EVENTS
Defines events in classes or interfaces.
Syntax
EVENTS EXPORTING.. VALUE() TYPE type [OPTIONAL]…
The event can be declared in the declaration part of a class or within an interface definition, and may have EXPORTING parameters that are passed to the event handler. The parameters are always passed by value.

EXEC SQL
Introduces a Native SQL statement.
Syntax
EXEC SQL [PERFORMING
].
Between EXEC SQL and the ENDEXEC statement, you can include a database-specific Native SQL statement. The PERFORMING addition allows you to pass a multiple-line selection line by line to a subroutine.

EXIT
Leaves a loop or processing block.
Syntax
EXIT.
Within a loop: The entire loop is terminated, and processing continues with the first statement following the loop. Outside a loop: Terminates the current processing block. In a reporting event: Jumps directly to the output list.

EXIT FROM STEP-LOOP
Ends a step loop.
Syntax
EXIT FROM STEP-LOOP.
Terminates step loop processing. A step loop is ais a way of displaying a table on a screen.

EXIT FROM SQL
Ends Native SQL processing.
Syntax
EXIT FROM SQL.
This statement may occur within a subroutine called using the PERFORMING addition in the EXEC SQL statement. The entire subroutine is processed, but no more subsequent lines of the selection are processed.

EXPORT
Exports data clusters.
Syntax
EXPORT… [FROM ]… | ()
TO MEMORY
| DATABASE () ID()
| SHARED BUFFER () ID().
The data objects or , or the data objects in the internal table are stored as a data cluster in the cross-program ABAP memory of the current internal session, in a cluster database table , or in the cross-transaction application buffer of the table .

EXTRACT
Creates an extract dataset and adds lines to it.
Syntax
EXTRACT .
With the first EXTRACT statement of a program, the system creates the extract dataset and adds the first extract record. In each subsequent EXTRACT statement, the new extract record is added to the dataset. Each extract record contains exactly those fields that are contained in the field group , plus the fields of the field group HEADER (if one exists).

F
FETCH
Uses a cursor to read entries from a database table.
Syntax
FETCH NEXT CURSOR INTO .
If the cursor is linked with a selection in a database table, FETCH writes the next line of the selection into the flat target area .

FIELD-GROUPS
Declares a field group for an extract dataset.
Syntax
FIELD-GROUPS .
This statement defines a field group . Field groups define the line structure of an extract dataset. You can also define a special field group called HEADER: When filling the extract dataset, the system automatically prefixes any other field groups with this field group.

FIELD-SYMBOLS
Declares field symbols.
Syntax
FIELD-SYMBOLS [|STRUCTURE DEFAULT ].
Field symbols are placeholders or symbolic names for other fields. Pointed brackets are part of the syntax for field symbol names. The addition allows you to specify the type of a field symbol. The STRUCTURE addition forces a structured view of the data objects that you assign to the field symbol.

FIND
Searches for patterns.
Syntax
FIND

IN [SECTION OFFSET LENGTH OF]
[IGNORING CASE|RESPECTING CASE]
[IN BYTE MODE|IN CHARACTER MODE]
[MATCH OFFSET ] [MATCH LENGTH ].
The system searches the field for the pattern

. The SECTION OFFSET LENGTH OF addition tells the system to search only from the position in the length . IGNORING CASE or RESPECTING CASE (default) specifies whether the search is to be case-sensitive. In Unicode programs, you must specify whether the statement is a character or byte operation, using the IN BYTE MODE or IN CHARACTER MODE (default) additions. The MATCH OFFSET and MATCH LENGTH additions set the offset of the first occurrence and length of the search string in the fields

and .
FORM
Defines a subroutine.
Syntax
FORM [USING … [VALUE(] [)] [TYPE |LIKE ]… ]
[CHANGING… [VALUE(] [)] [TYPE |LIKE ]… ].
Introduces a subroutine
. The USING and CHANGING additions define the subroutine’s parameter interface. The subroutine end with ENDFORM.

FORMAT
Sets formatting options for list output.
Syntax
FORMAT… [ON|OFF]…
The formatting options (such as color) set in the FORMAT statement, apply to all subsequent output until they are turned off using the OFF option.

FREE
Release space in memory.
Syntax
FREE .
FREE MEMORY ID().
FREE OBJECT .
This statement deletes an internal table, a data cluster in ABAP memory, or an external object in OLE2 Automation, depending on the variant of the statement used.

FUNCTION
Defines a function module.
Syntax
FUNCTION .
Introduces the function module . This statement is not entered in the ABAP Editor, but is automatically generated by the Function Builder in the ABAP Workbench. The function module definition ends with the ENDFUNCTION statement

FUNCTION-POOL
Introduces a function group.
Syntax
FUNCTION-POOL.
The first statement in a function group. This statement is not entered in the ABAP Editor, but is automatically generated by the Function Builder in the ABAP Workbench. A function group is an ABAP program that contains function modules.

G
GET
Event keyword for defining event blocks for reporting events.
Syntax
GET [FIELDS ...].
Only occurs in executable programs. When the logical database has passed a line of the node to the program, the runtime environment triggers the GET event, and the corresponding event block is executed. You can use the FIELDS option to specify explicitly the columns of a node that the logical database should read.

GET BIT
Reads an individual bit.
Syntax
GET BIT OF INTO .
Reads the bit at position of the hexadecimal field into the field .

GET CURSOR
Gets the cursor position on a screen or in an interactive list event.
Syntax
GET CURSOR FIELD [OFFSET ] [LINE ]
[VALUE ] [LENGTH ].
GET CURSOR LINE [OFFSET ] [VALUE ] [LENGTH ].
At a user action on a list or screen, the statement writes the position, value, and displayed length of a field or line into the corresponding variables.

GET DATASET
Syntax
GET DATASET [POSITIONS ]
[ATTRIBUTE ].
Gets the attributes of a file opened using OPEN DATASET. The POSITIONS additions writes the current read/write position to the field . The ATTRIBUTE addition writes the attributes to a structure, , of the type DSET_ATTRIBUTES.

GET LOCALE LANGUAGE
Gets the current text environment.
Syntax
GET LOCALE LANGUAGE COUNTY MODIFIER .
Returns the current language, country ID and any modifier into the corresponding variables

GET PARAMETER
Gets an SPA/GPA parameters
Syntax
GET PARAMETER ID FIELD .
Writes the value of the SPA/GPA parameter from the user-specific SAP memory into the variable .

GET PF-STATUS
Gets the current GUI status.
Syntax
GET PF-STATUS [PROGRAM ] [EXCLUDING ].
Returns the name of the current GUI status (the same as SY-PFKEY) into the variable . The PROGRAM addition writes the name of the ABAP program to which the status belongs into the variable . The EXCLUDING addition returns a list of all currently inactive function codes into the internal table .

GET PROPERTY
Gets a property of an OLE2 Automation object.
Syntax
GET PROPERTY OF

= .
Writes the property

of an external OLE2 Automation object to the variable .

GET REFERENCE
Gets a data reference.
Syntax
GET REFERENCE OF INTO .
Writes a data reference to an existing data object to the data reference variable .

GET RUN TIME FIELD
Measures the runtime in microseconds.
Syntax
GET RUN TIME FIELD .
The first time the statement is executed, the variable is set to zero. In each subsequent call, the runtime since the first call is written to .

GET TIME
Synchronizes the time.
Syntax
GET TIME [FIELD ].
Refreshes the system fields SY-UZEIT, SY-DATUM, SY-TIMLO, SY-DATLO, and SY-ZONLO. The FIELD addition fills the variable with the current time.

GET TIME STAMP FIELD
Returns a time stamp.
Syntax
GET TIME STAMP FIELD .
Returns the short or long form of the current date and time, depending on whether the variable has the type P(8) or P(11). The long form returns the time correct to seven decimal places.

H
HIDE
Stores information about list lines.
Syntax
HIDE .
While the list is being created, this statement stores the contents of the field and the current line number in the internal HIDE area When the cursor is positioned on a line in an interactive list event, the stored value is returned to the field .

I
IF
Conditional branch.
Introduces a new branch.
Syntax
IF .
Opens an IF control structure that ends with an ENDIF statement. The system evaluates the logical expression , and processes different statement blocks depending on the result.

IMPORT
Imports data clusters.
Syntax
IMPORT… [TO ]… | ()
FROM MEMORY
| DATABASE () ID()
| SHARED BUFFER () ID().
The data objects or , or the data objects in the internal table are read from data clusters, either in the cross-program ABAP memory of the current internal session; in a cluster database table ; or in the cross-transaction application buffer of the table and written to the variables and .
IMPORT DIRECTORY
Creates the directory of a data cluster from a cluster database.
Syntax
IMPORT DIRECTORY INTO
FROM DATABASE ()
Id .
Writes a directory of the data objects belonging to a data cluster in the cluster database to the internal table .
In the third variant, the table contains a directory of the objects stored using EXPORT TO DATABASE.

INCLUDE
Inserts an include program in another program.
Syntax
INCLUDE .
Has the same effect as copying the source code of the include program into the program. Include programs are not loaded at runtime, but are expanded when the program is generated. Include programs must have the program type I.

INCLUDE TYPE|STRUCTURE
Includes a structure within another.
Syntax
INCLUDE TYPE |STRUCTURE [AS [RENAMING WITH SUFFIX ]].
Within a structure declared using TYPES|DATA BEGIN OF, copies a structured datatype , or a structure already available as a data object, as part of the structure declaration. The AS addition lets you address the individual components using the name . The RENAMING addition lets you append a suffix, , to , so that you can copy the same structure several times.

INITIALIZATION
Event keywords for defining event blocks for reporting events.
Syntax
INITIALIZATION.
Only occurs in executable programs. The ABAP runtime environment triggers the INITIALIZATION event before the selection screen is processed, at which point the corresponding event block is processed.

INSERT for Database Tables
Inserts entries from database tables.
Syntax
INSERT FROM .
INSERT FROM TABLE [ACCEPTING DUPLICATE KEYS].
Inserts one line from the work area or several lines from the internal table into the database table . The ACCEPTING DUPLICATE KEYS addition prevents a runtime error from occurring if two entries have the same primary key. Instead, it merely discards the duplicate

INSERT for Field Groups
Defines the structure of field groups for extract datasets.
Syntax
INSERT … INTO .
Includes the fields in the field group , thus defining a line structure for an extract dataset.

INSERT for any Internal Table
Inserts lines from internal tables of any type.
Syntax
INSERT |LINES OF [FROM ] [TO ]
INTO TABLE
[ASSIGNING | REFERENCE INTO ].
Inserts a line or a set of lines from the internal table into the internal table . If is an index table, you can use the FROM and TO additions to restrict the lines inserted. If you use ASSIGNING or INTO REFERENCE, field symbol refers to the inserted line or the relevant data reference is stored in after the statement.

INSERT for Index Tables
Inserts entries in index tables.
Syntax
INSERT |LINES OF [FROM ] [TO ]
INTO [INDEX ]
[ASSIGNING | REFERENCE INTO ].

Inserts a line or a set of lines from the internal table into the internal table before the line with the index . If is an index table, you can use the FROM and TO additions to restrict the lines inserted. If you omit the INDEX addition, you can only use the statement within a LOOP. A new line containing values is inserted before the current line. If you use ASSIGNING or INTO REFERENCE, field symbol refers to the inserted line or the relevant data reference is stored in after the statement.

INSERT for Programs
Inserts ABAP programs into the program library.
Syntax
INSERT REPORT FROM .
The lines of the internal table are added to the program library as the program .

INTERFACE
Declares a interface in ABAP Objects.
Syntax
INTERFACE [DEFERRED]
[LOAD].
Introduces an interface . The definition ends with ENDINTERFACE and contains the declaration of all the components of the interface. The DEFERRED addition makes the interface known to the program before it is defined. The LOAD addition loads an interface explicitly from the Class Library.

INTERFACES
Implementation or nesting of an interface in ABAP Objects.
Syntax
INTERFACES
[ABSTRACT|FINAL METHODS | ALL METHODS ABSTRACT|FINAL ]
[DATA VALUES = = ...]
.
Used in a class declaration: This statement adds the components of the interface to the existing class definition. Used in an interface definition: Forms a compound interface. Use the additions to characterize methods in interfaces as abstract or final. Their attributes can be filled with initial values.

L
LEAVE for Screens
Leaves a screen.
Syntax
LEAVE SCREEN.
Stops processing the current screen and calls the subsequent screen. The next screen can either be defined statically in the screen attributes or set dynamically using the SET SCREEN statement.
Syntax
LEAVE TO SCREEN .
Stops processing the current screen and calls the dynamically-defined subsequent screen *.

LEAVE for Lists During Screen Processing
Switches between screen and list processing.
Syntax
LEAVE TO LIST-PROCESSING [AND RETURN TO SCREEN ].
Allows you to create and display a list while processing a series of screens. The addition allows you to specify the next screen (to which you return after the list has been displayed). If you do not use the addition, screen processing resumes with the PBO of the current screen
Syntax
LEAVE LIST-PROCESSING.
Allows you to switch back explicitly from list processing to screen processing.

LEAVE for Programs
Leaves an ABAP program.
Syntax
LEAVE [PROGRAM].
Stops processing the current program and returns to the point from which it was called.
Syntax
LEAVE TO TRANSACTION [AND SKIP FIRST SCREEN].
This statement ends processing of the current program and starts a new transaction, . The addition allows you to skip the initial screen of the transaction.

LOAD-OF-PROGRAM
Event keywords for defining event blocks for a program constructor.
Syntax
LOAD-OF-PROGRAM.
When an ABAP program is loaded in an internal session, the runtime environment triggers the LOAD-OF-PROGRAM event, and the corresponding event block is executed.

LOCAL
Protects global data against changes.
Syntax
LOCAL .
Only occurs in subroutines. When the subroutine starts, the value of is stored temporarily, and restored to the variable at the end of the subroutine.

LOOP Through Extracts
Introduces a loop through an extract dataset.
Syntax
LOOP.
Loops through an extract dataset. The loop ends with an ENDLOOP statement. When the LOOP statement is executed, the system stops creating the extract dataset of the program, and starts a loop through the entries in the dataset. One record from the extract dataset is read in each loop pass. The values of the extracted fields are placed in the corresponding output fields of the field group within the loop.

LOOP THROUGH internal tables
Starts a loop through an extract dataset.
Syntax
LOOP AT INTO WHERE .
LOOP AT ASSIGNING WHERE .
LOOP AT REFERENCE INTO WHERE .
LOOP AT TRANSPORTING NO FIELDS WHERE .
Loop through any Internal Table The loop ends with an ENDLOOP statement. If the logical expression is true, each loop pass either assigns the current line content to the work area ; assigns the current line to a field symbol ; creates a reference to the current line by ; or does not assign the line content at all. The first operand in each part of must be a component of the internal table. Pointed brackets are part of the syntax for field symbol names.
With index tables, you can use the additions FROM and TO to restrict the lines that are read by specifying an index range.

LOOP Through Screen Fields
Starts a loop through the table SCREEN.
Syntax
LOOP AT SCREEN…
Similar to a loop through an internal table. The system table SCREEN contains the names and attributes of all of the fields on the current screen.

M
MESSAGE
Displays a message.
Syntax
MESSAGE [WITH ... ] [RAISING ].
MESSAGE ID TYPE NUMBER .
MESSAGE ().
Displays the message of message class as message type . The message type specifies how the message is displayed, and how the program reacts. The WITH addition allows you to fill placeholders in the message text. The RAISING addition in function modules and methods allows you to terminate the procedure and trigger the exception .
MESSAGE TYPE
This variant display a string, , directly as a message of the type .

METHOD
Introduces the implementation of a method in a class.
Syntax
METHOD .
Only occurs in the implementation part of classes. Introduces a statement block that ends with ENDMETHOD. You do not have to specify any interface parameters, since these are defined in the method declaration.

METHODS
Declares methods in classes and interfaces.
Syntax
METHODS [FOR EVENT OF ]
IMPORTING… [VALUE(][)] TYPE [OPTIONAL]…
EXPORTING… [VALUE(][)] TYPE [OPTIONAL]…
CHANGING … [VALUE(][)] TYPE [OPTIONAL]…
RETURNING VALUE()
EXCEPTIONS … …
[ABSTRACT]
[FINAL]
[REDEFINITION].
You declare a method in the definition part of a class or in the definition of an interface: The IMPORTING, EXPORTING, CHANGING, RETURNING, and EXCEPTIONS additions define the parameter interface and exceptions of the method. The ABSTRACT addition defines an abstract class, which cannot be implemented in the same class. The function of a non-abstract method must be implemented using METHOD. The FINAL addition prevents you from redefining the method in subclasses. The REDEFINITION addition redefines a method of a superclass. The FOR EVENT addition declares an event handler method for the event of a class or interface.

MODIFY for Database Tables
Inserts or changes lines in database tables.
Syntax
MODIFY FROM .
MODIFY FROM TABLE .
Works like INSERT for database tables, if there is not yet a line in the table with the same primary key. Works like UPDATE if a line already exists with the same primary key.

MODIFY for any Internal Table
Changes the content of lines in internal tables of any type.
Syntax
MODIFY TABLE FROM [TRANSPORTING ...]
[ASSIGNING | REFERENCE INTO ].

Copies the work area into the line of the internal table with the same table key as . If you use ASSIGNING or INTO REFERENCE, field symbol refers to the modified line or the relevant data reference is stored in after the statement. You can use the TRANSPORTING addition to specify the exact components that you want to change.
MODIFY FROM TRANSPORTING … WHERE .
Copies the work area into the line of the internal table for which the logical expression is true. In each comparison of the logical expression, the first operand must be a component of the line structure.

MODIFY for Index Tables
Changes the content of lines in index tables.
Syntax
MODIFY FROM [INDEX ] [TRANSPORTING ...]
[ASSIGNING | REFERENCE INTO ].
Copies the work area into the line of the internal table with the index . If you omit the INDEX addition, you can only use the statement within a LOOP. In this case, you change the current loop line If you use ASSIGNING or INTO REFERENCE, field symbol refers to the modified line or the relevant data reference is stored in after the statement.

MODIFY for Lists
Changes a list line.
Syntax
MODIFY LINE [INDEX ] [OF CURRENT PAGE|OF PAGE

]
|CURRENT LINE
LINE FORMAT …
FIELD VALUE [FROM ] [FROM ]…
FIELD FORMAT .
Changes either line on the current or specified list (or page), or the last line to be chosen. The exact nature of the change is specified in the additions

MODIFY SCREEN
Changes the SCREEN table.
Syntax
MODIFY SCREEN…
Like changing an internal table. The system table SCREEN contains the names and attributes of all of the fields on the current screen.

MODULE
Introduces a dialog module.
Syntax
MODULE OUTPUT |[INPUT].
Introduces the dialog module . The OUTPUT and INPUT additions designate the module as a PBO or PAI module respectively. Each dialog module ends with ENDMODULE.

MOVE
Assigns values.
Syntax
MOVE TO .
Assigns the contents of the data object to the variable , with automatic type conversion if necessary. Equivalent to = .

MOVE-CORRESPONDING
Assigns values between identically-named components of structures.
Syntax
MOVE-CORRESPONDING TO .
Moves the contents of the components of structure to the components of that have identical names.

MULTIPLY
Multiplies two single fields.
Syntax
MULTIPLY BY .
Multiplies the content of by , and stores the result in . This is equivalent to: m=m*n.

MULTIPLY-CORRESPONDING
Multiplies components of structures.
Syntax
MULTIPLY-CORRESPONDING BY .
All the identically-named subfields of the structures and are multiplied and the results are stored these subfields of .
N
NEW-LINE
Inserts a line break in a list.
Syntax
NEW-LINE [NO-SCROLLING|SCROLLING].
Positions the list display after the page header. The NO-SCROLLING addition prevents the new line from scrolling horizontally. SCROLLING resets the NO-SCROLLING addition.

NEW-PAGE
Inserts a page break in a list.
Syntax
NEW-PAGE [NO-TITLE|WITH-TITLE]
[NO-HEADING|WITH-HEADING]
[LINE-COUNT]
[LINE-SIZE]
[PRINT ON|OFF].
Generates a new page and positions the list output after the page header. The additions control how the page header is displayed, the length and width of the page, and the print output.

NODES
Declares an interface work area.
Syntax
NODES .
Declares a variable with the same data type and the same name as a data type from the ABAP Dictionary. Structures in main programs and subroutines declared using NODES use a common data area. This statement is used in conjunction with logical databases.

O
ON CHANGE
Introduces a new branch.
Syntax
ON CHANGE OF [OR OR ...].
Opens an ON control structure, which ends with ENDON. The statement block is executed whenever the contents of the field or one of the other fields has changed since the statement was last executed.

OPEN CURSOR
Opens a database cursor.
Syntax
OPEN CURSOR [WITH HOLD] FOR SELECT
FROM
[WHERE ]
[GROUP BY ]
[HAVING ]
[ORDER BY ].
Opens a cursor with type CURSOR for a SELECT statement. You can use all the clauses of the SELECT statement apart from the INTO clause. The INTO clause is set in the FETCH statement. If you use the WITH HOLD addition, the cursor is not closed when a database commit occurs.

OPEN DATASET
Opens a file.
Syntax
OPEN DATASET
[FOR INPUT|OUTPUT|APPENDING|UPDATE]
[IN BINARY MODE
|IN TEXT MODE [ENCODING (DEFAULT|UTF-8|NON-UNICODE)]
|IN LEGACY BINARY MODE [(BIG|LITTLE) ENDIAN] [CODE PAGE ]
|IN LEGACY TEXT MODE [(BIG|LITTLE) ENDIAN] [CODE PAGE ]]
[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER ]
[IGNORING CONVERSION ERRORS]
[AT POSITION ]
[TYPE ]
[MESSAGE ]
[FILTER ].
Opens a file on the application server. The additions after FOR specify how the file is read or written. The MODE additions specifies how content is interpreted (as characters or in binary form). The ENCODING addition specifies the character representation in the file. The LEGACY MODE allows you to read files that were written before Release 6.10. REPLACEMENT CHARACTERS and CONVERSION ERRORS are used to handle errors during character set conversion. AT POSITION specifies the position in the file. MESSAGE specifies where system messages are stored. FILTER lets you specify operating system commands.

OVERLAY
Overlays one string with another:
Syntax
OVERLAY WITH [ONLY ].
This statement overlays all positions in field containing letters which occur in with the contents of . remains unchanged. If you omit ONLY , all positions of containing spaces are overwritten.

P
PACK
Converts type C variables to type P.
Syntax
PACK TO .
Packs the string and places it in the field . This can be reversed with the UNPACK statement.

PARAMETERS
Declares parameters for a selection screen.
Syntax
PARAMETERS

[()] [TYPE |LIKE ] [DECIMALS ]
[DEFAULT ]
[MEMORY ID ]
[LOWER CASE]
[OBLIGATORY]
[VALUE CHECK]
[AS CHECKBOX]
[RADIOBUTTON GROUP ]
[NO-DISPLAY]
[MODIF ID ].
Declares a variable

, as in the DATA statement. For

, an input field appears on the corresponding selection screen. The additions allow you to define default values, accept lowercase input, define the field as required, check values, define a checkbox or radio button, prevent the field from being displayed on the selection screen, or modify the field

PERFORM
Calls a subroutine.
Syntax
PERFORM
| ( ) [IF FOUND]
|()[IN PROGRAM ()][IF FOUND]
[USING ... ... ]
[CHANGING... ... ]
[ON COMMIT].
Calls an internal or external subroutine or the subroutine whose name occurs in the field. The external program is or the name contained in . The IF FOUND addition prevents a runtime error from occurring if the subroutine does not exist. The USING and CHANGING additions fill the subroutine’s parameter interface. The ON COMMIT addition delays the execution of the subroutine until the next COMMIT WORK statement.

POSITION
Absolute position of the display in a list.
Syntax
POSITION .
Positions the list display in the column .

PRINT-CONTROL for Print Format
Specifies the print format.
Syntax
PRINT-CONTROL
[LINE ] [POSITION ].
Sets the print format starting either at the current list position or at line and column .

PRINT-CONTROL for Index Lines
Creates index lines in the spool file.
Syntax
PRINT-CONTROL INDEX-LINE .
Writes the contents of field into an index line after finishing the current print line. The index line is not printed. During optical archiving, the spool system divides the list into a data file and a description file containing the index lines.

PRIVATE
Defines the private section of a class.
Syntax
PRIVATE SECTION.
Introduces the declaration of all of the components of a class that are only visible in the class itself.

PROGRAM
Introduces a program.
Syntax
PROGRAM …
The first statement in some ABAP programs. Equivalent to: REPORT.

PROTECTED
Defines the protected section of a class.
Syntax
PROTECTED SECTION.
Introduces the declaration of all of the components of a class that are only visible in the class and its subclasses.

PROVIDE
Loops through internal tables at given intervals.
Syntax
PROVIDE … FROM
… FROM
… FROM
… BETWEEN AND .
The contents of the specified fields of the internal tables … are placed in their header lines. The processing block between PROVIDE and ENDPROVIDE is then executed for each interval.

PUBLIC
Defines the public section of a class.
Syntax
PUBLIC SECTION.
Introduces the declaration of all of the components of a class that are visible in the class, its subclasses, and all users.

PUT
Triggers a GET event.
Syntax
PUT .
Only occurs in logical databases. Directs the program flow according to the structure of the logical database.

R
RAISE for Class-Based Exceptions
Raises an exception.
Syntax
RAISE EXCEPTION TYPE | .
Terminates processing and raises an exception of the exception class . If the reference variable points to an object of an exception class, can be specified instead of TYPE.

RAISE for Exceptions of Function Modules and Methods
Raises exceptions.
Syntax
RAISE .
Only occurs in function modules and methods. Terminates processing and raises an exception defined in the interface.

RAISE for Events
Triggers events in ABAP Objects.
Syntax
RAISE EVENT .
Only occurs in methods. Triggers the event and calls all registered handler methods.

RANGES
Declares a RANGES table.
Syntax
RANGES FOR .
Declares a RANGES table for the field . A RANGES table has the same data type as a selection table, but is not linked to input fields on a selection screen.

READ for Files
Reads a file.
Syntax
READ DATASET INTO
[MAXIMUM LENGTH ]
[ACTUAL LENGTH ].
Reads the contents of the file on the application server to the variable . The amount of data can be specified using MAXIMUM LENGTH. The number of bytes transferred can be written to using ACTUAL LENGTH.

READ for any Internal Table
Reads a line of an internal table.
Syntax
READ TABLE FROM
|WITH TABLE KEY = … =
|WITH KEY =
|WITH KEY = … =
INTO [COMPARING ... |ALL FIELDS]
[TRANSPORTING ... |ALL FIELDS|NO FIELDS]
|ASSIGNING
|REFERENCE INTO .
This statement reads either the line of the internal table with the same key as specified in the work area , the line with the key specified in the TABLE KEY addition, the line that corresponds fully to , or the one corresponding to the freely-defined key in the KEY addition. The contents of the line are either written to the work area , or the line is assigned to the field symbol . If you assign the line to a work area, you can compare field contents and specify the fields that you want to transport.

READ for Index Tables
Reads a line of an internal table.
Syntax
READ TABLE INDEX INTO …
| ASSIGNING
| REFERENCE INTO .
The line with index 7 is read. The result is specified as with any internal table.

READ for Lists
Reads the contents of a line from a list.
Syntax
READ LINE [INDEX ] [OF CURRENT PAGE|OF PAGE

]
|CURRENT LINE
[FIELD VALUE [INTO ]… [INTO ]].
Reads either the line on the current or specified list or page, or the last line to have been selected by the user. The addition specifies the fields that you want to read, and the target fields into which they should be placed. The entire line is always placed in the system field SY-LISEL, and the HIDE area is filled for the line.

READ for Programs
Reads ABAP programs into the program library.
Syntax
READ REPORT INTO .
Copies the lines of the program into the internal table .

RECEIVE
Receives results from an asynchronous function module call.
Syntax
RECEIVE RESULTS FROM FUNCTION [KEEPING TASK]
[IMPORTING ... fi = a i... ]
[TABLES ... fi = a i... ]
[EXCEPTIONS... ei = r i... ]
Occurs in special subroutines to receive IMPORTING and TABLES parameters from function modules called using the STARTING NEW TASK addition

REFRESH
Initializes an internal table.
Syntax
REFRESH .
Resets the internal table to its initial value, that is, deletes all of its lines.

REFRESH CONTROL
Initializes a control.
Syntax
REFRESH CONTROL FROM SCREEN .
The control defined in the CONTROLS statement is reset with the initial values specified for screen .

REJECT
Leaves an GET processing block.
Syntax
REJECT [].
Terminates the processing of the current line of the node of the logical database. If you use the optional , the logical database reads the next line of the node .

REPLACE by Pattern
Replaces strings in fields with other strings using a pattern.
Syntax
REPLACE [ FIRST OCCURENCE OF | ALL OCCURENCES OF ] IN [ SECTION OFFSET LENGTH OF ] WITH
[IGNORING CASE|RESPECTING CASE]
[IN BYTE MODE|IN CHARACTER MODE]
[REPLACEMENT COUNT ]
[REPLACEMENT OFFSET ]
[REPLACEMENT LENGTH ].
In the string , the search pattern is replaced by the content of . By default, the first occurrence of is replaced. ALL OCCURENCES specifies that all occurrences be replaced. In the fields and , trailing spaces in C fields are ignored, but included in . The SECTION OFFSET LENGTH OF addition tells the system to search and replace only from the position in the length . IGNORING CASE or RESPECTING CASE (default) specifies whether the search is to be case-sensitive. In Unicode programs, you must specify whether the statement is a character or byte operation, using the IN BYTE MODE or IN CHARACTER MODE (default) additions. The REPLACEMENT additions write the number of replacements, the offset of the last replacement, and the length of the last replaced string to the fields , , and .

REPLACE by Position
Replaces strings in fields with other strings by position.
Syntax
REPLACE WITH INTO [LENGTH ].
[IN BYTE MODE|IN CHARACTER MODE].
ABAP searches the field for the first occurrence of the first characters in the pattern and replaces them with the string . In Unicode programs, you must specify whether the statement is a character or byte operation, using the IN BYTE MODE or IN CHARACTER MODE (default) additions.

REPORT
Introduces a program.
Syntax
REPORT [MESSAGE-ID ]
[NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING]
[LINE-SIZE ]
[LINE-COUNT ()]
[DEFINING DATABASE ].
The first statement in executable ABAP programs. can be any name you choose. The addition MESSAGE-ID specifies a message class to be used in the program. The DEFINING DATABASE addition defines the program as the database program of the logical database . The other additions are formatting specifications for the default list of the program.

RESERVE
Inserts a conditional page break in a list.
Syntax
RESERVE LINES.
Executes a page break on the current page if less than lines are free between the current line and the page footer.

RETURN
Leaves a processing block.
Syntax
RETURN.
Leaves the current processing block. In a reporting event: Jumps directly to the output list.

ROLLBACK
Undoes the changes in a SAP LUW.
Syntax
ROLLBACK WORK.
ROLLBACK WORK always undoes all changes back to the start of the database LUW. The update modules are not called, and the log entry is deleted from table VBLOG.

S
SCROLL
Scrolls through lists
Syntax
SCROLL LIST FORWARD|BACKWARD [INDEX ].
SCROLL LIST TO FIRST PAGE|LAST PAGE|PAGE [INDEX ] [LINE ].
SCROLL LIST LEFT|RIGHT [BY PLACES] [INDEX ].
SCROLL LIST TO COLUMN [INDEX ].
Positions the current list or the list level in accordance with the additions specified. You can scroll by window, page, columns, or to the left- or right-hand edge of the list.

SEARCH
Searches for strings.
Syntax
SEARCH | FOR [ABBREVIATED]
[STARTING AT ]
[ENDING AT ]
[AND MARK]
[IN BYTE MODE|IN CHARACTER MODE].
Searches the field or table for the string in the field . The result is stored in SY-FDPOS. The additions let you hide intermediate characters, search from and to a particular position, and convert the found string into uppercase. In Unicode programs, you must specify whether the statement is a character or byte operation, using the IN BYTE MODE or IN CHARACTER MODE (default) additions.

SELECT
Reads data from the database.
Syntax
SELECT
INTO
FROM
[WHERE ]
[GROUP BY ]
[HAVING ]
[ORDER BY ].
The SELECT statement consists of a series of clauses, each of which fulfils a certain task:
SELECT clause
Defines the structure of the selection.
Syntax
SELECT [SINGLE]|[DISTINCT]
* | [AS ]… ( [DISTINCT] ) [AS ]…
The selection can be one line, SINGLE, or several lines. You can eliminate duplicate lines using the DISTINCT addition. To select the entire line, use *, otherwise, you can specify individual columns . For individual columns, you can use aggregate functions , and assign alternative column names .
INTO clause
Defines the target area into which the selection from the SELECT clause is written.
Syntax
… INTO [CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF]
| INTO|APPENDING [CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF] TABLE
[PACKAGE SIZE ]
| INTO (, ,…)
The target area can be a flat work area , an internal table , or a list of fields . If you use the CORRESPONDING FIELDS addition, data is only selected if there is an identically-named field in the target area. If you use APPENDING instead of INTO, the data is appended to an internal table instead of overwriting the existing contents. PACKAGE SIZE allows you to overwrite or extend the internal table in a series of packages.The data type of the target area must be appropriate for the selection in the SELECT clause.
FROM clause
The FROM clause determines the database tables from which the data specified in the SELECT clause is read.
Syntax
… FROM [ [INNER]|LEFT [OUTER] JOIN] [AS ]
[ON ]
[CLIENT SPECIFIED]
[BYPASSING BUFFER]
[UP TO ROWS]
You can read both single fields and groups of fields. You link several tables using inner and outer joins to link tables with conditions , where is a single table or itself a join condition. The names of database tables may be specified statically or dynamically, and you can use alias names. You can bypass automatic client handling with the CLIENT SPECIFIED addition, and SAP buffering with BYPASSING BUFFER. You can also restrict the number of lines read from the table using the UP TO ROWS addition.
WHERE clause
Restricts the number of lines selected.
Syntax
… [FOR ALL ENTRIES IN ] WHERE
The condition may contain one or more comparisons, tests for belonging to intervals, value list checks, subqueries, selection table queries or null value checks, all linked with AND, OR, and NOT. If you use the FOR ALL ENTRIES addition, the condition is checked for each line of the internal table as long as contains a field of the internal table as an operand. For each line of the internal table, the system selects the lines from the database table that satisfy the condition. The result set is the union of the individual selections resulting from each line.
GROUP BY clause
Groups lines in the selection.
Syntax
… GROUP BY
Groups lines with the same contents in the specified columns. Uses aggregate functions for all other columns in each group. All columns of the SELECT clause that are not listed in the GROUP BY clause must be included in aggregate functions.
HAVING clause
Restricts the number of line groups selected.
Syntax
… HAVING
Like the WHERE clause, but can only be used in conjunction with a GROUP BY clause. The HAVING clause uses conditions to restrict the number of groups selected.
ORDER BY clause
Sorts the lines of the selection.
Syntax
… ORDER BY PRIMARY KEY |… [ASCENDING|DESCENDING]…
Sorts the selection in ascending or descending order according to the primary key or the contents of the fields listed.

SELECT-OPTIONS
Declares selection criteria for a selection screen.
Syntax
SELECT-OPTIONS FOR
[DEFAULT [to ] [OPTION ] SIGN ]
[MEMORY ID ]
[LOWER CASE]
[OBLIGATORY]
[NO-DISPLAY]
[MODIF ID ]
[NO-EXTENSION]
[NO INTERVALS]
[NO DATABASE SELECTION].
Declares a selection table for the field . For , places input fields on the corresponding selection screen. The additions allow you to set a default value, accept input in lowercase, define a required field, suppress or modify the display on the selection screen, restrict the selection table to a line or a selection to a single field, or prevent input from being passed to a logical database.

SELECTION-SCREEN for Selection Screen Formatting
Formats selection screens
Syntax
SELECTION-SCREEN SKIP [].
SELECTION-SCREEN ULINE [[/] ] [MODIF ID ].
SELECTION-SCREEN COMMENT [/] [FOR FIELD ]
[MODIF ID ].
SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF LINE.

SELECTION-SCREEN END OF LINE.
SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF BLOCK
[WITH FRAME [TITLE ]]
[NO INTERVALS].

SELECTION-SCREEN END OF BLOCK .
SELECTION-SCREEN FUNCTION KEY .
SELECTION SCREEN PUSHBUTTON [/] USER-COMMAND [MODIF ID ].
Allows you to insert blank lines, lines and comments, group input fields together in lines and blocks, and create pushbuttons.

SELECTION-SCREEN for Selection Screen Definition
Defines selection screens.
Syntax
SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF [TITLE ] [AS WINDOW].

SELECTION-SCREEN END OF .
Defines a selection screen with screen number . All PARAMETERS, SELECT-OPTIONS, and SELECTION-SCREEN statements that occur between these two statements define the input fields and the formatting of this selection screen. The TITLE

SELECTION-SCREEN for Selection Screen Versions
Defines selection screen versions.
Syntax
SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF VERSION

SELECTION-SCREEN EXCLUDE .

SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF VERSION .
Only occurs in logical databases. Hides fields that otherwise appear on the standard selection screen.

SELECTION-SCREEN for Logical Databases
Provides special functions.
Syntax
SELECTION-SCREEN DYNAMIC SELECTIONS | FIELD SELECTION
FOR NODE|TABLE .
Only occurs in logical databases. Declares a node as accepting dynamic selections or field selections.

SET BIT
Sets individual bits.
Syntax
SET BIT OF [TO ].
This statement sets the bit at position of the hexadecimal field to 1 (or to the value of field ). The field must contain the value 0 or 1.

SET BLANK LINES
Allows blank lines in lists.
Syntax
SET BLANK LINES ON|OFF.
Prevents blank lines created in WRITE statements from being suppressed in list output.

SET COUNTRY
Sets output Formats
Syntax
SET COUNTRY .
Sets the output formats for numeric and date fields for the country with the ID .

SET CURSOR
Sets the cursor on the screen.
Syntax
SET CURSOR FIELD [OFFSET ]
[LINE ].
SET CURSOR LINE [OFFSET ].
SET CURSOR .
Sets the cursor either to a particular position in a field, line, or column of a line.

SET DATASET
Syntax
SET DATASET [POSITIONS | END-OF_FILE]
[ATTRIBUTE ].
Changes the attributes of a file opened using OPEN DATASET. The POSITIONS addition sets the current read/write position to the value in the field or to the end of the file. The ATTRIBUTE addition passes the attributes to the file in a structure, , of the type DSET_ATTRIBUTES.

SET EXTENDED CHECK
Affects the extended program check.
Syntax
SET EXTENDED CHECK ON|OFF.
Switches the extended program check (SLIN) on or off, suppressing the corresponding messages.

SET HANDLER
Registers event handlers in ABAP Objects.
Syntax
SET HANDLER… … [FOR |FOR ALL INSTANCES].
If you do not use the FOR addition, the handler is set for all static events. Use the FOR addition to register handlers for instance events.

SET HOLD DATA
Sets a screen attribute.
Syntax
SET HOLD DATA ON|OFF.
Sets the screen attribute “Hold data” from the program.

SET LANGUAGE
Sets the display language.
Syntax
SET LANGUAGE .
All text symbols are refreshed with the contents of the text pool in language .

SET LEFT SCROLL BOUNDARY
Sets the left boundary for horizontal scrolling.
Syntax
SET LEFT SCROLL-BOUNDARY [COLUMN ].
Sets the current output position or the position as the left-hand edge of the scrollable area on the current list page.

SET LOCALE LANGUAGE
Sets the current text environment.
Syntax
SET LOCALE LANGUAGE [COUNTRY ] [MODIFIER ].
Sets the text environment for alphabetical sorting according to the language , country , and any further modifier .

SET MARGIN
Sets the margin of a print page.
SET MARGIN [].
Sends the current list page to the spool system with a margin of columns from the left-hand edge and rows from the top edge of the page.

SET PARAMETER
Sets an SPA/GPA parameters
Syntax
SET PARAMETER ID FIELD .
Writes the value of the field to the SPA/GPA parameter in the user-specific SAP memory.

SET PF-STATUS
Sets the GUI status
Syntax
SET PF-STATUS [EXCLUDING |]
[IMMEDIATELY] [OF PROGRAM ].
Sets the GUI status for the subsequent screens. The EXCLUDING addition allows you to deactivate functions dynamically. The IMMEDIATELY addition sets the GUI status of the list currently displayed. The OF PROGRAM addition allows you to use a GUI status from another program.

SET PROPERTY
Sets a property of an OLE2 Automation object.
Syntax
GET PROPERTY OF

= .
Sets the property

of an external OLE2 Automation object to .

SET RUN TIME ANALYZER
Controls runtime analysis.
Syntax
SET RUN TIME ANALYZER ON|OFF.
The runtime analysis only measures the runtime of the statements in the block between SET RUN TIME ANALYZER ON and OFF.

SET RUN TIME CLOCK
Controls runtime analysis.
Syntax
SET RUN TIME CLOCK RESOLUTION HIGH|LOW.
Sets the accuracy of the runtime to low accuracy with long measurement interval or high accuracy with shorter measurement interval.

SET SCREEN
Sets the next screen.
Syntax
SET SCREEN .
Temporarily overwrites the statically-defined next screen with . is processed after the current screen.

SET TITLEBAR
Sets the screen title.
Syntax
SET TITLEBAR [OF PROGRAM ] [WITH ... ].
Sets the title for the subsequent screens. The OF PROGRAM addition allows you to use a title from another program. The WITH addition fills any placeholders in the title.

SET UPDATE TASK LOCAL
Switches on local update.
Syntax
SET UPDATE TASK LOCAL.
Updates are processed in the current work process.

SET USER-COMMAND
Triggers a list event.
Syntax
SET USER-COMMAND .
Triggers a list event with the function code and calls the corresponding event block.

SHIFT
Shifts strings.
Syntax
SHIFT [BY PLACES] [LEFT|RIGHT|CIRCULAR]
[IN BYTE MODE|IN CHARACTER MODE].
Shifts the field by one or places. The additions allow you to specify the direction, and how the empty spaces are dealt with. In Unicode programs, you must specify whether the statement is a character or byte operation, using the IN BYTE MODE or IN CHARACTER MODE (default) additions.

SKIP for Blank Lines
Generates blank lines in the display list.
Syntax
SKIP [].
The system writes blank lines into the current list, starting at the current line. If no value is specified for , one blank line is output.

SKIP for Positioning
Absolute position of the display in a list.
Syntax
SKIP TO LINE .
Positions the list display in the line .

SORT for Extracts
Sorts an extract dataset.
Syntax
SORT [ASCENDING|DESCENDING] [AS TEXT] [STABLE]
… BY [ASCENDING|DESCENDING] [AS TEXT]…
Ends the creation of the extract dataset of a program and, at the same time, sorts its records. Without the BY option, the system sorts the dataset by the key specified in the HEADER field group. You can define a different sort key by using the BY addition. The other additions specify whether you want to sort in ascending or descending order, and whether strings should be sorted alphabetically.

SORT for Internal Tables
Sorts internal tables.
Syntax
SORT [ASCENDING|DESCENDING] [AS TEXT] [STABLE]
… BY [ASCENDING|DESCENDING] [AS TEXT]…
Sorts the internal table . If you omit the BY addition, the table is sorted by its key. You can define a different sort key by using the BY addition. The other additions specify whether you want to sort in ascending or descending order, and whether strings should be sorted alphabetically.

SPLIT
Splits a string.
Syntax
SPLIT AT INTO … INTO TABLE
[IN BYTE MODE|IN CHARACTER MODE].
This statement searches the character field for delimiter strings and the parts before and after the delimiters are placed in the target fields …> … , or into a new line of the internal table . In Unicode programs, you must specify whether the statement is a character or byte operation, using the IN BYTE MODE or IN CHARACTER MODE (default) additions.

START-OF-SELECTION
Event keywords for defining event blocks for reporting events.
Syntax
START-OF-SELECTION.
After the selection screen has been processed, the runtime environment triggers the LOAD-OF-PROGRAM event, and the corresponding event block is executed.

STATICS
Defines static variables.
Syntax
STATICS …
Like DATA. Retains the value of a local variable beyond the runtime of the procedure in which it occurs.

STOP
Leaves a reporting event.
Syntax
STOP.
Only occurs in event blocks for reporting events. Leaves the event block and goes to the END-OF-SELECTION block.

SUBMIT
Calls an executable program of type 1.
Syntax
SUBMIT [AND RETURN] [VIA SELECTION-SCREEN]
[USING SELECTION-SET ]
[WITH ]
[WITH FREE SELECTIONS ]
[WITH SELECTION-TABLE ]
[LINE-SIZE ]
[LINE-COUNT ].
Calls the program . If you omit the AND RETURN addition, the current program is terminated. Otherwise, the data from the current program is retained, and processing returns to the calling program when has finished running. The other additions control the selection screen and set attributes of the default list in the called program.

SUBTRACT for single fields
Subtracts two single fields.
Syntax
SUBTRACT FROM .
The contents of are subtracted from the contents of and the results are stored in . This is equivalent to: = – .

SUBTRACT-CORRESPONDING
Subtracts components of structures.
Syntax
SUBTRACT-CORRESPONDING FROM .
All the subfields of the structures and having the same name are subtracted and the results are stored in .

SUM
Calculates sums of groups.
Syntax
SUM.
Only occurs in loops through internal tables. Calculates the sums of the numeric fields in all lines of the current control level and writes the results to the corresponding fields in the work area.

SUPPLY
Fills context instances with values.
Syntax
SUPPLY = … = TO CONTEXT .
Fills the key fields of the context instance with the values .

SUPPRESS DIALOG
Prevents the current screen from being displayed.
Syntax
SUPPRESS DIALOG.
Can only occur in a PBO dialog module. The screen is not displayed, but its flow logic is still processed.

T
TABLES
Declares an interface work area.
Syntax
TABLES .
Declares a structure with the same data type and the same name as a database table, a view, or a structure from the ABAP Dictionary. Structures in main programs and subroutines declared using TABLES use a common data area.

TOP-OF-PAGE
Event keywords for defining event blocks for list events.
Syntax
TOP-OF-PAGE [DURING LINE-SELECTION].
Whenever a new page begins while a standard list is being created, the runtime environment triggers the TOP-OF-PAGE event and the corresponding event block is executed. The addition DURING LINE-SELECTION has the same function, but for detail lists.

TRANSFER
Writes to a file.
Syntax
TRANSFER TO [LENGTH ].
Writes the field to the file on the application server. You can specify the length of the data you want to transfer using the LENGTH addition.

TRANSLATE
Converts characters to strings.
Syntax
TRANSLATE TO UPPER|LOWER CASE
|USING .
The characters of the string are converted into upper- or lowercase, or according to a substitution rule specified in .

TRY
Introduces a TRY block.
Syntax
TRY.
Class-based exceptions can be handled using the CATCH statement, within the block ended with ENDTRY.

TYPE-POOL
Introduces a type group.
Syntax
TYPE-POOL .
The first statement in a type group. This statement is not entered in the ABAP Editor, but is automatically generated by the Dictionary in the ABAP Workbench. A type group is an ABAP program that contains type definitions and constant declarations that can be used in several programs.

TYPE-POOLS
Declares the types and constants of a type group to a program.
Syntax
TYPE-POOLS .
This statement allows you to use all the data types and constants defined in the type group in your program.

TYPES for Single Field Types
Defines a single field type.
Syntax
TYPES [()] [TYPE |LIKE ] [DECIMALS ].
Defines the internal data type in the program with length , reference to the ABAP Dictionary type or a data object , and, where appropriate, with decimal places.
Syntax
TYPES TYPE REF TO |.
Defines the internal data type in the program with reference to the class or the interface .
Syntax
TYPES TYPE REF TO DATA|.
Defines the internal data type as a data reference to a data object.

TYPES for Complex Types
Defines complex types.
Syntax
TYPES: BEGIN OF ,

…,

END OF .
Combines the data types to form the structure . You can address the individual components of a structure in a program using a hyphen between the structure name and the component name as follows: -.
Syntax
TYPES TYPE|LIKE OF [WITH ].
Defines the local data type in the program as an internal table with the access type , the line type , and the key .
Syntax
TYPES TYPE|LIKE RANGE OF |.
Defines the internal data type as a RANGES table. A RANGES table has the same data type as a selection table, but is not linked to input fields on a selection screen.

U
ULINE
Places horizontal lines in the display list.
Syntax
ULINE [AT [/][ ][()]].
Without additions, creates a new line on the current list and fills it with a horizontal line. The additions allow you to insert a line break and specify the starting position and length of the line.

UNPACK
Converts type P variables to type C.
Syntax
UNPACK TO .
Unpacks the packed field and places it in the string with leading zeros. This can be reversed with the PACK statement.

UPDATE
Changes entries in database tables.
Syntax
UPDATE SET =
| = +
| = – [WHERE ].
The value in the column is set to the value , increases it by , or decreases it by for all lines selected. The WHERE clause specifies the lines that are changed. If you omit the WHERE clause, all lines are changed.
Syntax
UPDATE FROM .
UPDATE FROM TABLE .
This deletes the line that has the same primary key as the work area , or deletes all the lines in the database that have the same primary key as a line in the internal table . The work area or the lines of the internal table must have at least the same length and alignment as the lines of the database table.

W
WHEN
Introduces a statement block in a CASE control structure.
Syntax
WHEN [OR OR...] | OTHERS.
The statement block following a WHEN statement is executed if the contents of the field in the CASE statement are the same as those of one of the fields . Afterwards, the program carries on processing after the ENDCASE statement. The statement block after WHEN OTHERS statement is executed if the contents of does not equal any of the contents.

WHILE
Introduces a loop.
Syntax
WHILE [VARY FROM NEXT ].
Introduces a statement block that ends with ENDWHILE. The statement block between WHILE and ENDWHILE is repeated as long as the logical expression is true, or until a termination statement such as EXIT or CHECK occurs. The VARY addition allows you to process fields the same distance apart in memory.

WINDOW
Displays a list as a modal dialog box.
Syntax
WINDOW STARTING AT [ENDING AT ].
Only occurs in list processing. The current detail list is displayed as a modal dialog box. The top left-hand corner of the window is positioned at column and line . The bottom right-hand corner is positioned at column and line (if specified).

WRITE
Displays lists.
Syntax
WRITE [AT [/][ ][()]] [AS CHECKBOX|SYMBOL|ICON|LINE]
[QUICKINFO ].
[
]
The contents of the field are formatted according to their data type and displayed in the current list. . The additions before the field allow you to specify a line break, the starting position, and the length of the field. The additions after the field allow you to display checkboxes, symbols, icons, and lines. The
addition can contain various other formatting options. The QUICKINFO addition allows you to assign a tool tip to the field.

WRITE TO
Assigns string values.
Syntax
WRITE TO [
].
Converts the contents of a data object to type C, and assigns the resulting string to the variable . You can use the same formatting options available in the WRITE statement

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