Sales and Distribution Q & A : Master Data

Why does the customer master have different views?
In addition to the sales and distribution data, the accounting data is also important for a payer. Therefore one can create a customer master record centrally for the following partner functions:
For the payer
For the sold-to party who, in addition to the other partner functions, also takes on the function of the payer.
Which different partner functions can a customer master record serve?
• sold-to party
• ship-to party
• payer
• bill-to party
• One-time customer including all partner functions.

What is the structure of data in the customer master record?
Different data is maintained in each of the three areas:
General data, like address and telephone number, etc., is maintained for every customer. This data is only identified by the customer number, not by company code or sales area. Maintaining the data is possible from both the accounting view and the sales and distribution view.
Company code data is only of interest for the accounting department. It includes, for example, information on insurance or account management. This data applies to only one company code.
Sales and distribution data is only of interest for the sales and distribution department. It includes, for example, data on pricing or shipping. This data only applies to one sales area, and therefore is dependent on the sales structure (sales organization, distribution channel, division).
Would you have different customer numbers if your customer was serviced by more than one company code?
Would you have different customer numbers if your customer was serviced by more than one sales organization?
A material is produced in plant Boston, plant Dallas and in plant Chicago. How many different material master number do you need?
Only one.
Is it possible to have different data for the same customer for different sales areas?
Give examples of general data in the customer master record ?
Address, Control data, Marketing, Payment transactions, Contact person, Unloading points.
Give examples of general data in the material master record ?
This level contains the data applicable to all individual group companies, all plants, and all warehouses/stores belonging to an enterprise (corporate group). Examples of general data are details on a material’s design (CAD drawings, for instance) and storage conditions (temperature range, whether the material is explosive or perishable, and so on).
Give examples of company -code-specific data in the customer master record?
This data is only of importance to the accounting department. It includes, for example, data on insurance and account management. Company code data only applies to one company code. If you edit the customer master record you must specify customer number and company code in order to access the screens containing company code data.
Which plant-specific data do you find in the material master record?
This level contains the data for each branch or plant location within a certain company. The data important to Purchasing is stored at this level. Examples of this data are the maximum and minimum order quantities of a material and the reorder level. You access the plant data by entering the plant key.
If a customer wishes to receive goods on Tuesdays only, how could you ensure that in the SAP R/3 system?
This can be done by specifying goods receiving hours – Time schedule of ship-to party which specifies the days and times that goods can be delivered.
Do you find any sales prices in the material master record?
Name at least five different partner functions.
Examples of partner functions in Sales and Distribution:
sold-to party, ship-to party, bill-to party, payer.
Examples of partner functions (roles) in Materials Management:
ordering address, supplier of goods, invoicing party, different payee.
Which are the two partner functions in SD that have to be maintained in FI too ?
sold-to party, payer.
Can you assign a material to more than one division?
If you want to create language specific sales texts for your material master, would you have to create a new material master record?

What is a material type and which material types do you know?
Raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, trading goods, operating supplies.
Name the four standard industry sectors in SAP for the material master. For what do you use them?
Branch of industry.
The industry sector groups together companies according to their activities (for example, plant engineering and construction, mechanical engineering, the chemical industry, and the pharmaceutical industry).
Table-driven program support is provided via the industry sector: for example, for the selection of data fields on-screen, for the sequence of the screens, and for the allocation of a material to a material type.
For what or why do you use the classification system in sales? Give examples of objects you can classify in R/3.
For e.g., Variant Pricing of configurable products. Objects can be customers, products, condition types.
Does storage-location specific data in the material master record apply for each plant?
This level contains the data specific to a storage location. Stock levels are an example of the data maintained for each storage location. You access the storage location data by entering the plant and storage location codes.
This data structure facilitates the organization of material-related information within the entire enterprise. It prevents redundant storage of material data when the same material is used in more than one plant or stored at more than one storage location.
Example: Suppose the same metal casting is stored at two different locations. The design and purchasing data for this material would be identical. However, the data on the stock levels at each location would differ.
Name at least four views of the material master record.
Accounting : Valuation and costing information. Examples: standard price, past and future price, and current valuation.
Materials planning and control: Information for material requirements planning (MRP) and consumption-based planning/inventory control. Examples: safety stock level, planned delivery time, and reorder level for a material.
Purchasing: Data provided by Purchasing for a material. Examples: purchasing group responsible for a material, over- and underdelivery tolerances, and the order unit.
Engineering: Engineering and design data on a material. Examples: CAD drawings, basic dimensions, and design specifications.
Storage: Information relating to the storage/warehousing of a material. Examples: unit of issue, storage conditions, and packaging dimensions.
Forecasting: Information for predicting material requirements. Examples: how the material is procured, forecasting period, and past consumption/usage.
Sales and distribution: Information for sales orders and pricing. Examples: sales price, minimum order quantity, and the name of the sales department responsible for a certain material.
What are the possible units of measure for a material?
A material can be stored, transported and sold in various units of measure. In the SAP R/3 System, you can therefore define various units of measure which are maintained in the sales and distribution screens. However, you only need to maintain the fields of the units of measure if they deviate from the base unit of measure. If no other fields with units of measure are maintained, the system automatically takes the base unit of measure as a basis for its calculations. You can enter the following units of measure in the sales and distribution screens:
Base unit of measure : Stocks of a material are managed in the base unit of measure. All quantity movements in other units of measure are converted automatically by the system into the base unit of measure.
Alternative unit of measure: If a product is managed in the base unit of measure “Piece” but is sold in the sales unit “Box”, you must define the conversion factor. The alternative unit of measure can define, for example, that 1 box of this material contains 12 pieces.
Sales unit : The unit of measure in which materials are sold is referred to as a sales unit (for example, piece or bottle). The value you define in the material master record is proposed during business
transactions relevant for sales, such as the sales order. You can replace them with other alternative units of measure in the sales order.
Delivery Unit : The delivery unit refers to the unit in which materials can be delivered. Only exact multiples of the delivery unit can be delivered. For example, with a delivery unit of 30 bottles, 30, 60 or 90 bottles can be delivered, but not 100 bottles.
Quantity Specifications: Two different quantity specifications are used:
Minimum order quantity: The minimum order quantity refers to the minimum quantity the customer must order. A warning message appears if the minimum order quantity is not reached during order entry. The order can be entered in spite of the warning message.
Minimum delivery quantity : The minimum delivery quantity refers to the minimum quantity you must deliver to the customer. The minimum delivery quantity is automatically checked during delivery processing. A warning message appears during delivery processing if you enter a delivery quantity lower than the minimum delivery quantity. The delivery can be created in spite of this warning message.
What is a Bill of material?
A bill of material is a complete, formally structured list of the components that make up a product or assembly. The list contains the object number of each component, together with the quantity and unit of measure. The components are known as BOM items. A bill of material can only refer to a quantity of at least 1 of an object.
Is the BOM used in the PP module only?
No. Also used in SD.
Explain what a routing is?
Routing contains the operations required in production, and the production resources/tools, material components, and test equipment required to produce the product.
What is a work center?
A work center is an organizational unit where a work step is carried out, producing an output. The work center defines where and by whom an operation is to be carried out. A cost center is assigned to each work center in the work center master record. The work center has a particular available capacity. The activities performed at or by the work center are valuated by charge rates, which are determined by cost centers and activity types. Work centers can be: Machines, People, Production lines, Groups of craftsmen .
IN Personnel Planning and Development (PD) work centers are the physical locations where tasks are carried out. A work center can represent anything as general as a geographic location, for example, the New York branch office. Or work centers can be very precisely defined. For example, a work center could represent a specific workstation, with specific tools and equipment, on a specific floor, of a specific building.
IN Workflow Management a work center is a particular place which has been set up specifically so that employees can perform their duties within the corporate work system using working materials.
What does the account group of the customer /vendor control?
A collection of properties of accounts which determine the creation of master records.
The account group determines the data that is relevant for the master record and a number range from which numbers are selected for the master records.
Each master record must be assigned to an account group.
Changes to the account group and the accompanying partner functions can only be made from a lower level to a higher level. For example, this means that a sold-to party cannot be assigned the function of a payer as fields which have already been maintained for this sold-to party would have to be masked. However, you can assign the sold-to party function to a payer.
The account group ensures that for the different partner functions of a customer only the necessary screens and fields are displayed for input.
What are the two possible ways of control for the cost of a material in the material master record?
Standard Price, Moving Average Price.
What is a valuation class?
Allocation of a material to a group of G/L accounts.
Along with other factors, the valuation class determines the G/L accounts to be updated as a result of a valuation-relevant transaction (for example, a goods movement).
Which valuation classes are valid depends on the material type. Several valuation classes can be valid for one material type.
A valuation class can be valid for several material types.
A customer master record in SD is also an A/R(accounts receivables)in FI. When you create a customer master record you also have to specify the reconciliation account. For what is the reconciliation account used?
Account in G/L accounting, to which automatic entries are posted during a business activity. It is generally the case that several subledger accounts post to a common reconciliation account. This ensures that the developments in the subledger accounts are accurately reflected in the general ledger (i.e. in line with balance sheet conventions). You can set up a reconciliation account for, say, all overseas customers.